|Chester Beatty p46 Philippians & Galatians|
Philippians is now the fifth book I have completed a reconstruction in Marcionite form. Although I have a much better handle on the specifics of the targets of the content and a better eye for the Catholic editor's themes and words, there were still several unique challenges faced in the reconstruction this book in Marcionite form. Unlike other books in Marcion's collection I have reviewed, Philippians has no additional attestation beyond Tertullian, and it is the last book that Tertullian looked at and may have skipped over more material than usual. Below I go over a few interesting points.
Hard Time in Mamertine Prison:
The best evidence we have of the opening of this letter is probably the Latin Marcionite prologue from the 6th century codex Fuldensis.
There are several interesting aspects to this prologue. The first is not too surprising, Timothy is missing. In the Catholic version Timothy is an important addition in the introduction, which includes an address to the Bishops and Elders, because the Epistles addressed to him concern ecclesiastical discipline. Tertullian Adversus Marcionem 5.21.1 addresses this very point of controversy, saying of MarcionPhilippenses sunt Machedones. hi accepto verbo veritatis persteterunt in fide, nec receperunt falsos apostolos. hos apostolus conlaudat scribens eis a Roma de carcere per Epaphroditum.The Philippians are Macedonians. They persisted in the faith after the word of truth was accepted, nor did they receive false apostles. The apostle praises them, writing to them from Rome, from prison, through Epaphroditus.
quod ad Timotheum duas et unam ad Titum de ecclesiastico statu compositas recusaverit.Timothy thus represents the obedience the orthodoxy demands. Hence 1:1 states καὶ Τιμόθεος δοῦλοι instead of the typical Marcionite ἀπόστολος to emphasize that obedience. So it is no surprise that Timothy also appears in verses 2:19-24, where he is so elevated that it is said that he is the only equal soul to Paul
his party rejected the two epistles to Timothy and the one to Titus, which all treat of ecclesiastical discipline.
|Carcare Mamertine (remnant)|
Half a Creed is Good Enough:
In my blog entry concerning the post-Marcionite "pre-Pauline" creeds I gave a cursory look at the creed(s) of Philippians 2:6-11 and came to the conclusion that Tertullian reported all he knew, and that the creed was in fact two creeds, one Marcionite in verses 2:6-8, and a second appended Catholic one in verses 2:9-11.
Tertullian argues by silence, with AM 5.20.5 finishing the first half of the creed on verse 2:8: Sic et deus inventus est per virtutem, sicut homo per carnem, quia nec morti subditum pronuntiasset non in substantia mortali constitutum. Plus est autem quod adiecit, Et mortem crucis. But there is no hint of any material between 2:6-8 and 3:4-7, as he summarizes verse 2:6-8 as the passion implying Marcion docetic view (imaginariam phantasmate) misses the point of the power of death, and then without pause jumps into verse 3:4 about counting loss. Tertullian almost always gives us an indication he is skipping material, saying something like “then” or “in another verse” or something to indicate a break. This immediately flags us to examine further.
A curious parallel is found in Augustine's Disputation with Fortunatus, chapter 7 (Acta seu disputatio contra Fortunatum Manichaeum), where Augustine's Manichean opponent uses the same front half of Philippians creed, quoting in full 2:5-8
Fortunatus dixit: Hoc sentimus, quod nos instruit beatus apostolus Paulus, qui dixit: Hoc sentite in vobis, quod et in Christo Iesu; qui cum in forma Dei esset constitutus, non rapinam arbitratus est esse se aequalem Deo; sed semet ipsum exinanivit, formam servi accipiens, in similitudine hominum factus, et habitu inventus ut homo: humiliavit semetipsum, et factus est subditus usque ad mortem.
Hebrew of Hebrews:
In 3:5 Paul says that he was
circumcised the eighth day, by race of Israel, tribe Benjamin, Hebrew of Hebrews,
according to law a Pharisee,
περιτομῇ ὀκταήμερος, ἐκ γένους Ἰσραήλ, φυλῆς Βενιαμείν, Ἐβραῖος ἐξ Ἐβραίων,
κατὰ νόμον Φαρισαῖος,
Reluctantly, inexplicably, I have to accept it the verse as present. But there are two variants possible from reading Tertullian which should be considered, although I can find no evidence of any variants for this verse in easily available sources (Swanson unfortunately only completed the Gospels, Acts, the Corinthians, Romans, and Galatians).But what gain he had was taken as loss, and which (things) he counts in above (in the prior verse), the glory of the flesh, the mark of circumcision, by race Hebrew of Hebrews by census (tax), by title the tribe of Benjamin, in bright honors a Pharisee, these things are a loss to him, attributed not to the God of the Jews, but their stupidity.Quae autem retro lucri duxerat, quae et supra numerat, gloriam carnis, notam circumcisionis, generis Hebraei ex Hebraeo censum, titulum tribus Beniamin, pharisaeae candidae dignitatem, haec modo detrimento sibi deputat, non deum, sed stuporem, Iudaeorum.
So how can it be that Paul is physically circumcised, as this verse implies? A closer reading of Tertullian reveals that may not be the case. Tertullian says that Paul counts himself as having the he has "the mark of circumcision" notam circumcisionis not "circumcised on the eighth day" (Vulgate reads circumcisus octava die) περιτομῇ ὀκταήμερος. This suggests a reading like Romans 4:11 σημεῖον περιτομῆς (see also 2 Thessalonians 3:17). But this is not a certainty, even though Tertullian similarly writes in 5.4.10 "mark of slavery" servitutis notam, he more often uses notam to mean "made known" (γνωρισθῇ or ἐγνωρίσθη). But the usage strongly suggests the former, and Tertullian has no reason to change to something the removes the smoking gun of Paul's circumcision, as the "mark" can be taken allegorically. The wording also conforms to Romans 4:12 which is no doubt a pastiche possibly of this verse. So I accept the reading σημεῖον περιτομῆς. It's just enough to keep Paul's ethnicity in question.
I don't have any information on the initiation rites of particular Roman mystery religions like those of Bacchus, or Mythras, or even the Antonius cult started by Hadrian But verse the section 4:10-13 seems to be concerned with an initiation rite to one of the mystery cults - which I do not know-, centered on verses 4:12
I know both to be humbled,Like Titus 1:12 commentary from Epimenides about Cretans, we have the entrance of civic cults in the picture as rivals to the writers. This is a call out to my readers. If anyone knows the cult from which this verse came from please comment and point me to it.
and I know to be prosperous;
in every and all I have learned the mystery of
both filled and hungry,
both having abundance and wanting;
οἶδα καὶ ταπεινοῦσθαι,
οἶδα καὶ περισσεύειν·
ἐν παντὶ καὶ ἐν πᾶσιν μεμύημαι,
καὶ χορτάζεσθαι καὶ πεινᾷν
καὶ περισσεύειν καὶ ὑστερεῖσθαι·
My notes and the interlinear are under "My Papers" or you can read them here:
Notes on Catholic Additions to Philippians
Marcionite Philippians Interlinear
Marcionite Romans Updated
I have also updated my Romans Interlinear in Marcionite form (link). Essentially almost all of chapter 14 vanished, because I now know the material deals with the Valentinian controversy of eating food for idols. The church is also very diversified, such that different sects have different foods they eat, and fasts and other differences. Clearly its much later that the start-up church Marcion's Paul was dealing with. At some point I will write up my notes on this letter, as it has maybe the most decisions of any on the Marcionite writer and Catholic editorial additions. I am not looking forward to that (I estimate 50 hours of work); so I'll probably start chipping away in the background, force myself to do at least one verse per night ... Christmas 2014?
I think the Thessalonians are most likely going to be up next. 2 Thessalonians is pretty far along, and I think I can wrap it and it's brother 1 Thessalonians up in September. Laodiceans will probably be in October; its a larger and more complex letter. The end is in sight for completing the Marcionite Apostolikon reproduction.